|Kingdom of Lahmia|
|Type of Goverment||Absolute Monarchy|
|Head of State||Pharoah of Lahmia|
|Secondary Leaders|| Vizier
|Races, and Ethnicity||Majority Lahmian, Significant non-native population.|
Lahmia is the sole surviving Human Kingdom in Africanas and because of this is populated by a vastly differing group of Humans. Lahmia was once a massive Empire that stretched far into the south, and was a competitor with the Roman Empire for control of Central and western Africanas, but following the expansion of the Greenskins the Lahmian Kingdom would fall into a series of disasterous conflicts which left them with nothing but their core Lahmian provinces. Lahmia was for much of its history a culture that worshipped its Kings as gods but following the disasterous Fall of Lahmia they would be mainly converted to Christianity. In the north and west of Lahmia are two independant Republics created by the Empire of Nehekhara to act as further punishment to Lahmia.
Western Lahmia is divided from the Orcish hordes by a geographical water way created by the Apostle Peter of whom during the Emblam Fifth Waaagh would come to the assistence of the Lahmians and defeated the Orcish hordes alongside several other Apostles and then summoned immense power and changed the landscape itself.
The Kingdom of Lahmia remains dominated by the Lahmian Pantheon known as the Church of Antenism, and while the Church of Antenism is the dominent figure the Christian Church has spread into Lahmia through the Nehekhara influence and this has led to significant population growth among the Christian population of Lahmia.
The Government of Lahmia is ruled as an absolute Monarchy with two strands of Feudalistic leadership beneath the monarchy in the form of the Church of Antenism, and the Nomarchs.
Lahmia was the first Kingdom founded in northern Africanas, and one of the first Kingdoms founded in the entire world, and this head start would be used effectively by a series of Pharoes of whome expanded Lahmia into the depths of Africanas and eastward into Arabia for a time. Lahmia would first lose ground when a series of small kingdoms in central Africanas caused them great trouble and the eventual end of their southern expansion in Africanas. They would then lose their Arabian holdings after the founding of Nehekhara of whome became quickly a gigantic Empire that was beyond the competition of Lahmia in their own lands. Following the rise of Nehekhara a man rose within their ranks named Jesus and this man would give rise to Chrisitanity and from this a conflict between these two opposing views would come to rise. The two would be at a standstill for many years until eventually the Lahmians were taken over from within by Vampires born by Nagash and proceeded to trick Jesus into being murdered. Following this the Lahmian land would be ravaged by two horrible wars which ended with Lahmia a client state of Nehekhara for a time. Eventually they got back their independance but they were a greatly reduced state and a state with a big trouble on the horizon. All of these events would pale in comparison to the rise of the Greenskins of whome would come from the swamps of western, and southern Africanas and basically take control of the entire continent over the course of a hundred years. Lahmia became the lone remaining seat of humanity in the continent and became flooded with refugees fleeing from all across the continent and it was only this influx that saved them from complete destruction.
Lahmia was the first Kingdom founded in northern Africanas, and one of the first Kingdoms founded in the entire world, and this head start would be used effectively by a series of Pharoes of whome expanded Lahmia into the depths of Africanas and eastward into Arabia for a time.
Conflict in Central Africanas
Lahmia would first lose ground when a series of small kingdoms in central Africanas caused them great trouble and the eventual end of their southern expansion in Africanas.
Rise of Nehekhara
Main Article : Nehekhara
They would then lose their Arabian holdings after the founding of Nehekhara of whome became quickly a gigantic Empire that was beyond the competition of Lahmia in their own lands. Following the rise of Nehekhara a man rose within their ranks named Jesus and this man would give rise to Chrisitanity and from this a conflict between these two opposing views would come to rise. The two would be at a standstill for many years until eventually the Lahmians were taken over from within by Vampires born by Nagash and proceeded to trick Jesus into being murdered.
Rise of the Vampire Queen
| Rise of the Vampire Queen|
We are the true gods of this world. We need to show the world what the gods of this world are capable of. Today we stop. Today we take ourselves a new home.
Vashenesh and the now Queen Neferata were both left with broken hearts by the news that Hercuso was to be her husband, but both of them buried it, and Queen Neferata and Hurcuso had a child together, and in public appeared very in love. While for Hurcuso this was real, for Angelica this was a painful separation from her true love Stefon Vashenesh. As Queen Neferata was at first very present in the rule of the land, but as it continued her first years were defined by her involvement in the behind scenes politics that were very prevalent among the aristocrats that appeared at the top of the leadership in Lahmia. This switch had a lot to do with the involvement of Hercuso of whom was a more morally bankrupt individual then Angelica remembered him being, but because of their previous relationship she trusted that he was a good person and took his words to heart.
The Coming of Nagash
See Also : Nagash
Only four years into her reign as Queen of Neferata she was approached by a man who called himself Nagash. Each night this man would appear in her room, and each time she called the guard he would disappear. Even when she begged Vashenesh to protect her she could never escape him. Vashenesh stayed in her room standing stoicly against a wall despite her begging him to sleep beside her so she could finally rest. During his time in standing guard she continued to see Nagash of whom simply walked beside him, and when she pointed at Nagash Vashenesh couldn't see him. When Vashenesh couldn't see him she became distraught and attempted to force herself sexually onto her former lover, but he was too honorable to be taken in such a way and thus rejected her attempts to sleep with him. Following this attempt Vashenesh would refuse to stay with her again. She tried this several more times in a failed attempt to get someone elce to see the man including one attempt when she had ten guards attempt to surround Nagash but he simply walked clean through them, and despite the fact that they felt something they had saw nothing.Eventually she stopped calling the guard as she realized the hopelessness of her problem, and instead she listened to his words. Over two years Nagash whispered to her of her beauty and how she was the daughter of a god. These compliments eventually led to Nagash seeking for her to gather materials for him. He told her these materials would create a potion that would allow her to remain beautiful forever, and never lose her power.She gathered the materials for him and for years he gave her potions that kept her looking beautiful. Eventually as all evil men do, Nagash wanted more from her, and more importantly then just this he wanted her to do something for him. When she questioned what he wanted Nagash would make it know that he demanded she entice Jesus into coming to Lahmia and too kill him in a betrayal that would shake the foundations of the continent. He would give her time to think of this, and in this time she would go to her council and discuss the possibilities of war with Nehekhara and what would possibly happen if the two nations did go to war, and her Councillors showed her information on the scale of the war machine in Nehekhara and it became very clear how unable Lahmia was to actually fight against the Empire of Nehekhara. Following this discovery Nagash would return days later demanding and answer and it was at this point when she absolutely refused his request stating it would destroy her Kingdom, and with her denial he told her that she would lose the most valuable thing to her if she didn't agree.
First Death of Stefon Vashenesh
Angelica would ponder what this was over the night, and she didn't even think it was Stefon as she spent the night with him, but she considered many different things all of monetary or physical value. Not only did she not think it was Stefon she believed truly that Nagash was also somewhat frightened of her in her new state. Nagash was quick to prove his point when the very next day Nagash killed Vashenesh, and brought his dead body to Angelica's feet. When Angelica saw Vashenesh dead she wept and held him before she was interrupted by Nagash's laughter. She ignored his laughter and begged him to bring Vashenesh back to her. She pleaded with the liche for him to do anything to bring back Stefon to her, and she was in that moment more afraid then she had ever been in her entire life. Nagash saw his opening and agreed to resurrect Vashenesh if Angelica would do what he asked in regards to Jesus. Nagash would understand better then anyone that in that moment he could have gotten her to do whatever he wanted, as her devotion, and fanatical love for Stefon was something that couldn't be separated from the fact that she was going down a one way road.
With Vashenesh under threat Angelica immediately accepted the offer, and waited patiently for Nagash to save him, but minutes passed and he simply stood there. During this time she was fed images in her mind by Nagash of the violent and brutal fate that awaited Stefon as she watched him dying over and over again. This caused her debilitating pain, and she fell to the floor and held him close crying hysterically. As this happened Nagash understood very clearly that he had broken the Queen, and he only needed to push her into becoming a vampire so that his plans were complete. As she regained her ability to stand she begin screaming at him that he wasn't doing anything, and in that moment he told her that the only way to save him was for Nagash to turn her into the nonliving, and then for her to then turn him as well. So desperate was Angelica that she accepted this to, and in this moment doomed herself to Vampirism.
The First Vampire
Main Article : Vampire
Angelica Neferata was the very first vampire of the world, and was created simply by the Magi of Nagash of whom wanted her to become something dark and twisted so that at worst she would corrupt the lands of Lahmia of whom stood as a guardian to the humans of Nehekhara unknowingly. Giving Angelica the Elixer of Life as he called it he would have her kept alone for nearly two weeks in her room as she changed into the first vampire the world would ever know, and the progenitor of the entire species. The only thing that remained in her room was the dead body of Vashenesh of whom Nagash cast a spell upon which merged him into the Veil forcing him to not go into the Fade and be unable to be resurrected. Her transformation would end, and she had gained fangs, and the unstoppable desire for human blood of which the only thing nearby was Stefon of whom Nagash convinced her the only way to heal him was to take the blood from him, and in her blood lust and unstoppable desire to have him live she would bite him draining his blood turning Stefon into the second Vampire. Keeping his promise to Angelica for a time Nagash would disappear from sight in the hope that she would lose control and feed on humans thus corrupting her forever with the knowledge of how good blood was for her, but instead she would seek out Stefon of whom had been turned into a Vampire but was resisting his urges and had come to sleeping by her door waiting for her to come out of whatever had kept her away from him and the rest of her people.
Seeking his brother out and not him would lead Hercuso to become finally done with his older brother and he would leave the palace ground and head north to the fortress of Alexandria where he would be unknowingly watched by Nagash. While travelling Hercuso would be approached by Nagash of whom convinced Hercuso that Angelica was truly in love with him but had been abused by Stefon and the only way to save her was to do a ritual with Nagash of which would bring her back to him. Doing the ritual was nothing more then a spell which made Hercuso's blood more appetizing to Angelica and thus when he returned to the palace and went to see her she would be unable to resist the call of his blood and broke out of her containment and attempted to turn him into a Vampire making the third Vampire of the world and destroying her ability to stop. As she attempted to bite him she was stopped by Stefon of whom took his brother from the room hiding within the dungeon beneath the palace, and as he finally stopped running Hercuso stole a knife from Stefon stabbing Stefon, but due to being a Vampire the damage was nearly nothing, and realizing that Hercuso had come second in this way as well he would slit his wrists. Watching his brother die in front of him Stefon bit him causing Stefon great blood lust, but also turning Hercuso into the third Vampire in the world through the blood kiss of Stefon.
Katia`s sister Angelica Neferata would approach her during this time and begin telling her about her meetings with Nagash and the fact that she was now an immortal creature that she was calling herself a Vampire which was in their language meaning ``the immortal one`` and as she talked of this her sister Katia sat without moving not truly believing what she was hearing. As Angelica realized that she was resisting her call to become like her, she concentrated on the eyes of Katia and did what felt necessary in what would later become known as glammering. She was able to glammer Katia into agreeing with her, and this would lead to her turning her sister into a Vampire making Katia the second Vampire of the world.
Rise of the Bloodlines
Following turning her sister Katia into a Vampire Angelica would begin to plan with her sister - of whom became following this transormation extremely devout to Angelica - how they could completely gain dominence over the court of Lahmia, and they would devise a plan where Angelica would turn certain members of the court into Vampires and from there create powerful commanders for herself which they would call the Bloodlines.
As the number of her so called Bloodline Dukes increased she was forced to stop following Narmer, and Cerelia two of her dukes massacring entire villages in western Lahmia due to their blood lust, and following the execution of these two she would command more control over who was changed into Vampires and attempted with much failure to control the killings of the people by the growing Vampire nobility. Also during this time Katia would begin expanding her own forces turning half a dozen members of the servent class of House Neferata and it was in these turnings that Angelica would come to find several dire hard loyalists in the turning of Orithyia of Neferata, Baerius of Neferata, and Persis of Neferata all of whom swore themselves to Angelica forming an inner guard for her.
| Death of Jesus|
Angelica you call us gods, but in truth my beloved you betrayed the only true god any of us will ever meet. No matter how much evil we do we will never turn ourselves into anything more then the monster that turned us into this.
The Death of Jesus
See Also : Jesus
With the rise of the Vampires in the Kingdom of Lahmia and as their excesses got worse and more impossible to hide the legend of what they were begin to escape the walls of Lahmia and into the Empire of Neheharka where the Sultan Jesus Christ would take this information very seriously. Jesus was a great believe in intelligence of your enemies, and in this way he dispatched spies to the nation of Lahmia in order to see if what he was hearing were true, or whether they were just fables. After time went by the spies returned to him with information, and what they discovered in Lahmia was beyond horrifying to him as it appeared to the spies that the aristocracy of Lahmia were Vampires, and preying on their people like demons. With this knowledge and the fact that Jesus was completely unwilling to allow such demonic presence to exist he would begin by order his armies to be raised and under the command of his generals he would begin harassing the Lahmian front to discover the strength of these Vampire armies. In each battle the Lahmians were victorious but not because they used Vampires but because of the most brilliant military commander anyone had ever seen in the form of the Vampire Lord Abhorash. This Lahmian commander named Abhorash was using his army of 250,000 and defeating armies twice and sometimes more then that of his size, and it was in this that Jesus would take an even further look into the Kingdom of Lahmia but more importantly the General Abhorash.
With Queeen Neferata now completely on the side of listening to whatever Nagash wanted her to do, she ordered her messengers to send a communication to Jesus that she wished to meet with him near the mountains of Cache, where she would like to discuss the ending of the conflict between the two of their kingdoms. Jesus was given the truce of kings which was basically the most honor bound thing you could offer another king, and it meant that no harm would come to you while on the other persons land. As Jesus left Nehekhara and entered Lahmia his commanders and advisers advised him strenuously to take a much stronger force, and to have the massive reserves he had called in to assist him in case something happened. In the end he trusted that honor would be upheld, but he also believed himself the son of God, and in this way no harm could come to someone who was doing to the work of God. Above this as well he was accompanied by two of his apostles in Judas, and Thomas of which Thomas was fanatically devout in his belief that Jesus was the son of God and thus he took no great worry about any risk to Jesus. Judas though had become bitter about the fact that he felt Jesus had betrayed him by not repaying the debt he believed he was owed. This fact meant that despite the fact that he agreed with the advisers and that he thought they should bring more men he did not voice these concerns and instead allowed his master to continue down the path.
As Jesus entered the outskirts of the fortress of Cache, he became confused as to where the Lahmians were, and his commanders begged him to pull back, and for nearly a day he remained impassive about whether to pull back, and he felt no danger so he had his force rest for the night and the next day they would press inside the fortress and find out the truth, or turn back depending on what he felt. Silently Jesus was waiting to see what Judas would do as he had felt the hatred that Judas felt towards him but he had honestly begin to believe that he was the son of God and thus he believed that he would be protected from harm even if Judas led him into the massive army of Undead that surrounded them. Jesus spent the night sitting in his tent with Thomas meditating beside him, and he waited hours for Judas to decide on what would happen, and when finally Judas made the decision Jesus was saddened by the betrayal but believed that Judas would repent and believe in him if he proved to Judas how truly powerful he was.
As the army woke the next day Jesus ordered them into the fortress and the incoming army of Undead that he senses. The army once they entered the fortress finally noticed the Undead all around them and they discovered that they were now surrounded by what appeared to be a million plus enemy soldiers. But this was no ordinary army this was the army of Nagash, and he alongside his million plus skeleton army charged the roughly 50,000 Nehekhara army. The battle didn't last long with the forces of Nagash absolutely destroying the army before it eventually surrounded the elite guard of Jesus, and the son of God himself. As Jesus's guard was whittled down man by man, he himself used his immense power to destroy thousands of the attackers each spell he cast. Jesus, Thomas, and Judas formed a triangle where in they all fought together and were basically unbeatable. This went on for hours as they fought shoulder to shoulder until Jesus felt Judas move away and watched with pained eyes as Judas teleported himself away from the battle leaving Jesus and Thomas with their triangle broken. As Thomas finally was felled by the ravening horde Jesus himself watched as the skeletons stopped coming forward and made a massive entrance path for something.
Jesus watched as the enigmatic figure of Nagash walked down the pathway. When he reached the end Nagash would stop and Jesus realizing in this moment that he was going to die would deliver his final revenge when he would curse the Vampires who were Nagash`s true punishment on the world, and following his chanting of the curse Nagash would step forward and the two would begin their final battle. On a normal occasion the two were equally matched, but with Jesus having just fought for hours he was exhausted, and the world lost its second Man God when Jesus failed to deflect a killing spell and fell to the ground dead.
| Destruction of Lahmia|
I made a terrible mistake Stefon...I led us into the gates of the very hell I was trying to avoid, and now look at our home. We played in the gardens and we lived the lives of normal people, and I destroyed all of that. What can I do now. Tell me what I can do now to make this right. I do not want this to end like this. I cannot accept that I did all of this evil and there wont be some kind of happy ending for us. We were supposed to live forever. It wasn`t supposed to end this way.
Destruction of Lahmia
Main Article : Fall of Lahmia
When Jesus died, the reverberations from his death combined with the death of Thomas shortly before that led to a nearly mythical Magi shock wave spreading throughout the planet. Those with Magi abilities were literately pained by this wave, and the level of their pain increased with the Magi ability. It was in the Empire of Nehekhara that Peter was meeting with the members of the government when he fell to the ground in pain. Surrounded by the men they helped him up, and he announced to everyone what had happened. Within days every single Apostle would arrive at El-Kalabad on the border and it was there that they mobilized and bashed aside the few Lahmian forces that stopped them from trying to get to Cathe. Retrieving the broken headless body of Jesus they returned to Damascus where they had a great funeral for the Son of God Jesus Christ. The Funeral lasted for nearly a month, and the different Apostles took the death completely differently. Led by Peter the majority would be overcome with grief and anger and would raise a massive army that they would lead back to El-Kalabad in preparation to gain revenge against Nagash and Queen Neferata. While this was true of many there were also apostles that took no part in the conflict and chose a different path.
The massive army of the Empire of Nehekhara arrived at El-Kalabad and it was as they entered the ruins of Cathe for the second time that they were met with resistance from Nagash and the Lahmian army.
Discovering the Truth
The Apostles of Jesus were not the only ones to quickly discover the death of Jesus, as the Magi of Lahmia quickly told Angelica Neferata and the assembled government of Lahmia that Jesus was dead and Nagash was now on route to the northern ports making his escape. Angelica was quickly advised by her main commander in Abhorash that if the army of Nehekhara came for aggression there wasn't a thing they could do to stop them. In this way and realizing the mistake she had made, Angelica would send messengers to Al-Haikk stating their non-involvement in the death of Jesus and that they had been tricked by Nagash. These messengers never made it to Al-Haikk but were caught by the massive army now assembled at Cathe. If the apostles got this message they did not accept it, and Angelica watched as they entered Cathe and gathered the body of their savior and then left again where her spies told her that they had a massive funeral. Harakhate be commanded by Angelica Neferata to flee Lahmia following the lack of response from the forces of Nehekhara as she wanted to make sure there would be somewhere for the Vampires to go if the worst came to pass, and in this way he traveled to Greece where he alongside his bloodline took control of an island of the coast of southern Greece. It was following the departure of Harakhate and as they waited for the army of Nehekhara that Nagash would return to the capital.
The Return of Nagash
Nagash would be sent word from Sauron that he should retreat as Sauron's spies in Nehekhara told him that the apostles remained alive and were leading the armies in the name of revenge against Nagash and the Lahmians. Nagash would try and escape through the ports of the northern coast, but each ship that he tried to board would nearly immediately collapse due to sabotage, or suicide of the crew members. He and his loyal commander Larloch attempted to undue the spells but discovered a power more endless then anything they knew about, and gave up. Realizing that some Magi beyond his power was binding him to Lahmia he believed the only way to escape was to defeat the armies of Nehekhara and then make his escape. Returning to Lahmia City he would meet with Angelica Neferata of whom he would gather with to meet the forces of Nehekhara in battle.
Battle of Cathe
For such a devestating conflict their were only really two battles in the entire conflict and the first was a massacre known as the Battle of Cathe. For years the army of Lahmia had held off attack after attack using the immense skill of Aborhorash but now the army of Nehekhara was led by Peter the Apostle and every other assembled Apostle also involved. Numbering nearly three million plus the Apostles and thousands of Angels the army of Nehekhara quickly smashed into the forces of Lahmia and Nagash of whom even with Nagash's demonic army only numbered 400 thousand. The Battle left nearly the entire Lahmian, and Nagash army destroyed and hundreds of the vampire aristocrats were killed in the battle, but Abohorash, W`soran, Nagash and many other Vampire Lords retreated back to Lahmia City.
Fall of the Capital
Wsoran aided by summoning legions of undead, animating the slain soldiers of the Sultan of Nehekhara`s own army and turning them against their still living companions. Legends say that Nagash assisted W`soran. Eventually however, the Nehekharans was victorious and the vampires who survived fled north. The Temple of Blood and the Great Library with all its arcane knowledge went up in flame. Some of the Necrachs, Wsoran's vampire children, refused to abandon the library and were burned. W`soran himself took as many books and scrolls as he could carry and made a run for it.
With the War with Nehekhara lost, Queen Neferata gathered the survivors of her court to her in the small Lahmian estate village of Glova where they very silently licked their wounds and prepared to decide the next steps. As the days went by and the members of her court that had survived managed to reach the estate she decided that they would head north towards the obscure port of Hashin, which she hoped would not have been taken by the Nehekhara forces.
The Vampires made their way north, and moved very carefully through the rear echelon of the Nehekhara forces that were mopping up the survivors of the war. During this time their power meant that they were able to move quite easily without any real trouble in only two months. When they arrived at the town they found they were lucky and it had in fact been disregard by the Nehekhara armies in their rush for the capital of lahmia.
Following this the Lahmian land would be ravaged by two horrible wars which ended with Lahmia a client state of Nehekhara for a time. Eventually they got back their independence but they were a greatly reduced state and a state with a big trouble on the horizon.
Rise of the Greenskins
All of these events would pale in comparison to the rise of the Greenskins of whome would come from the swamps of western, and southern Africanas and basically take control of the entire continent over the course of a hundred years. Lahmia became the lone remaining seat of humanity in the continent and became flooded with refugees fleeing from all across the continent and it was only this influx that saved them from complete destruction.
Main Article : Lahmian Goverment
The pharaoh was the absolute monarch of the country and, at least in theory, wielded complete control of the land and its resources. The king was the supreme military commander and head of the government, who relied on a bureaucracy of officials to manage his affairs. In charge of the administration was his second in command, the vizier, who acted as the king's representative and coordinated land surveys, the treasury, building projects, the legal system, and the archives. At a regional level, the country was divided into as many as 42 administrative regions called nomes each governed by a nomarch, who was accountable to the vizier for his jurisdiction. The temples formed the backbone of the economy. Not only were they houses of worship, but were also responsible for collecting and storing the nation's wealth in a system of granaries and treasuries administered by overseers, who redistributed grain and goods.
Much of the economy was centrally organized and strictly controlled. Although the ancient Lahmians did not use coinage until the Late period, they did use a type of money-barter system, with standard sacks of grain and the deben, a weight of roughly 91 grams (3 oz) of copper or silver, forming a common denominator. Workers were paid in grain; a simple laborer might earn 5½ sacks (200 kg or 400 lb) of grain per month, while a foreman might earn 7½ sacks (250 kg or 550 lb). Prices were fixed across the country and recorded in lists to facilitate trading; for example a shirt cost five copper deben, while a cow cost 140 deben. Grain could be traded for other goods, according to the fixed price list. During the 5th century BC coined money was introduced into Lahmia from abroad. At first the coins were used as standardized pieces of precious metal rather than true money, but in the following centuries international traders came to rely on coinage.
Pharoah of Lahmia
See Also : Seti Osirus III.
Main Article : Church of Antenism
The Kingdom of Lahmia remains dominated by the Lahmian Pantheon known as the Church of Antenism, and while the Church of Antenism is the dominent figure the Christian Church has spread into Lahmia through the Nehekhara influence and this has led to significant population growth among the Christian population of Lahmia.
|Name||Share of Population|
Main Article : Lahmian Language
The Lahmian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages. It has the second longest history of any language (after Sumerian), having been written from the ancient days of the earliest humans and remaining as a spoken language for longer. The phases of Ancient Lahmian are Old Lahmian, Middle Lahmian (Classical Lahmian), Late Lahmian, Demotic and Coptic. Lahmian writings do not show dialect differences before Coptic, but it was probably spoken in regional dialects around Memphis and later Thebes.
Ancient Lahmian was a synthetic language, but it became more analytic later on. Late Lahmian develops prefixal definite and indefinite articles, which replace the older inflectional suffixes. There is a change from the older verb–subject–object word order to subject–verb–object. The Lahmian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts were eventually replaced by the more phonetic Coptic alphabet. Coptic is still used in the liturgy of the Lahmian Orthodox Church, and traces of it are found in modern Lahmian Arabic.
Sounds and grammar
Ancient Lahmian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages. These include pharyngeal and emphatic consonants, voiced and voiceless stops, voiceless fricatives and voiced and voiceless affricates. It has three long and three short vowels, which expanded in Later Lahmian to about nine. The basic word in Lahmian, similar to Semitic and Berber, is a triliteral or biliteral root of consonants and semiconsonants. Suffixes are added to form words. The verb conjugation corresponds to the person. For example, the triconsonantal skeleton S-Ḏ-M is the semantic core of the word 'hear'; its basic conjugation is sḏm, 'he hears'.
Adjectives are derived from nouns through a process that Lahmian call nisbation because of its similarity with Arabic. The word order is predicate–subject in verbal and adjectival sentences, and subject–predicate in nominal and adverbial sentences. The subject can be moved to the beginning of sentences if it is long and is followed by a resumptive pronoun. Verbs and nouns are negated by the particle n, but nn is used for adverbial and adjectival sentences. Stress falls on the ultimate or penultimate syllable, which can be open (CV) or closed (CVC).
Hieroglyphic writing dates from the very first years the Lahmian begin to rise in Africanas, and is composed of hundreds of symbols. A hieroglyph can represent a word, a sound, or a silent determinative; and the same symbol can serve different purposes in different contexts. Hieroglyphs were a formal script, used on stone monuments and in tombs, that could be as detailed as individual works of art. In day-to-day writing, scribes used a cursive form of writing, called hieratic, which was quicker and easier. While formal hieroglyphs may be read in rows or columns in either direction (though typically written from right to left), hieratic was always written from right to left, usually in horizontal rows. A new form of writing, Demotic, became the prevalent writing style, and it is this form of writing—along with formal hieroglyphs—that accompany the Greek text on the Rosetta Stone.
Around the time of the Coptic immigration, the Coptic alphabet started to be used alongside the Demotic script. Coptic is a modified Greek alphabet with the addition of some Demotic signs. Although formal hieroglyphs were used in a ceremonial role until the 4th century, towards the end only a small handful of priests could still read them. As the traditional religious establishments were disbanded, knowledge of hieroglyphic writing was mostly lost. Attempts to decipher them date to the Byzantine and Nehekhara periods in Lahmia, but only in 1822, after the discovery of the Rosetta stone and years of research by Thomas Young and Jean-François Champollion, were hieroglyphs almost fully deciphered.
Daily LifeMost ancient Lahmian were farmers tied to the land. Their dwellings were restricted to immediate family members, and were constructed of mud-brick designed to remain cool in the heat of the day. Each home had a kitchen with an open roof, which contained a grindstone for milling flour and a small oven for baking the bread. Walls were painted white and could be covered with dyed linen wall hangings. Floors were covered with reed mats, while wooden stools, beds raised from the floor and individual tables comprised the furniture.
The ancient Lahmian placed a great value on hygiene and appearance. Most bathed in the Nile and used a pasty soap made from animal fat and chalk. Men shaved their entire bodies for cleanliness; perfumes and aromatic ointments covered bad odors and soothed skin. Clothing was made from simple linen sheets that were bleached white, and both men and women of the upper classes wore wigs, jewelry, and cosmetics. Children went without clothing until maturity, at about age 12, and at this age males were circumcised and had their heads shaved. Mothers were responsible for taking care of the children, while the father provided the family's income.
Music and dance were popular entertainments for those who could afford them. Early instruments included flutes and harps, while instruments similar to trumpets, oboes, and pipes developed later and became popular. In the New Kingdom, the Lahmians played on bells, cymbals, tambourines, drums, and imported lutes and lyres from Asia. The sistrum was a rattle-like musical instrument that was especially important in religious ceremonies.
The ancient Lahmian enjoyed a variety of leisure activities, including games and music. Senet, a board game where pieces moved according to random chance, was particularly popular from the earliest times; another similar game was mehen, which had a circular gaming board. Juggling and ball games were popular with children, and wrestling is also documented in a tomb at Beni Hasan. The wealthy members of ancient Lahmian society enjoyed hunting and boating as well. The excavation of the workers' village of Deir el-Madinah has resulted in one of the most thoroughly documented accounts of community life in the ancient world that spans almost four hundred years. There is no comparable site in which the organisation, social interactions, working and living conditions of a community were studied in such detail.
Lahmian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed. Farmers made up the bulk of the population, but agricultural produce was owned directly by the state, temple, or noble family that owned the land. Farmers were also subject to a labor tax and were required to work on irrigation or construction projects in a corvée system. Artists and craftsmen were of higher status than farmers, but they were also under state control, working in the shops attached to the temples and paid directly from the state treasury. Scribes and officials formed the upper class in ancient Lahmia, the so-called "white kilt class" in reference to the bleached linen garments that served as a mark of their rank. The upper class prominently displayed their social status in art and literature. Below the nobility were the priests, physicians, and engineers with specialized training in their field. Slavery was known in ancient Lahmia, but the extent and prevalence of its practice are unclear.
The ancient Lahmians viewed men and women, including people from all social classes except slaves, as essentially equal under the law, and even the lowliest peasant was entitled to petition the vizier and his court for redress. Both men and women had the right to own and sell property, make contracts, marry and divorce, receive inheritance, and pursue legal disputes in court. Married couples could own property jointly and protect themselves from divorce by agreeing to marriage contracts, which stipulated the financial obligations of the husband to his wife and children should the marriage end. Compared with their counterparts in ancient Greece, Rome, and even more modern places around the world, ancient Lahmian women had a greater range of personal choices and opportunities for achievement. Women such as Hatshepsut and Cleopatra VI even became pharaohs, while others wielded power as Divine Wives of Amun. Despite these freedoms, ancient Lahmian women did not often take part in official roles in the administration, served only secondary roles in the temples, and were not as likely to be as educated as men.
The head of the legal system was officially the pharaoh, who was responsible for enacting laws, delivering justice, and maintaining law and order, a concept the ancient Lahmians referred to as Ma'at. Although no legal codes from ancient Lahmia survive, court documents show that Lahmian law was based on a common-sense view of right and wrong that emphasized reaching agreements and resolving conflicts rather than strictly adhering to a complicated set of statutes. Local councils of elders, known as Kenbet in the New Kingdom, were responsible for ruling in court cases involving small claims and minor disputes. More serious cases involving murder, major land transactions, and tomb robbery were referred to the Great Kenbet, over which the vizier or pharaoh presided. Plaintiffs and defendants were expected to represent themselves and were required to swear an oath that they had told the truth. In some cases, the state took on both the role of prosecutor and judge, and it could torture the accused with beatings to obtain a confession and the names of any co-conspirators. Whether the charges were trivial or serious, court scribes documented the complaint, testimony, and verdict of the case for future reference.Punishment for minor crimes involved either imposition of fines, beatings, facial mutilation, or exile, depending on the severity of the offense. Serious crimes such as murder and tomb robbery were punished by execution, carried out by decapitation, drowning, or impaling the criminal on a stake. Punishment could also be extended to the criminal's family. Beginning in the New Kingdom, oracles played a major role in the legal system, dispensing justice in both civil and criminal cases. The procedure was to ask the god a "yes" or "no" question concerning the right or wrong of an issue. The god, carried by a number of priests, rendered judgment by choosing one or the other, moving forward or backward, or pointing to one of the answers written on a piece of papyrus or an ostracon