|Type of Goverment||Absolute Monarchy. Elements of Republicinism|
|Head of State||Emperor|
|Races, and Ethnicity||Italics|
The Roman Empire is one of the largest Human empires in the world founded before the Downfall of Numeron ths also making them one of the oldest as well. The Empire is centered in the European Continent, but at one point it had holdings in Africanas and Asia. The Empire's control has waned since those days and now it remains on the Italian Peninsela in its only major holdings, but still controls the western meditereanian.
The Roman Empire is often been the brunt of citisism for its persieved lack of action, but it has been hit hard by two major civil wars, and was the one first attacked in the Orc breakout into Europe. All of these wars and disasters have had a major effect on the upper leadership, who have become corupted due to their constant state of near destruction.
The capital of the Roman Empire is the truly magnificant city of Rome. While Rome was once far and away the largest city in the world, it has fallen far down the list following a series of declining Emperor's who have brought fear and starvation to the Italian region. With the declining power of the Roman Empire the capital has all but moved to Milan where the final nail in Rome's coffin may have come in the form of the Skaven Sacking of the city which killed the Emperor, and put so much fear in the goverment that they moved the senate and the Emperor to Milan.
The Roman Empire was first founded by the twin brothers Romulas and Remus of whom battled for supremecy against the Kingdom of Etrus and the Etruscans who were dominent on Italy, and during their rise they would found Rome and the Senate of Rome leading to the Republic of Rome. Following the wars of Italy by Romulas the Italian Peninsula was dominated by the Roman Republic becoming the major power force in southern Europe but also having a strong relationship with Numeron allowing them to expand peacefully in regions not dominated by the Numenorians. Following the taking of Sardinia the Romans would take control of Hispania through the bribing of local Hispanic tribes, and this led to the complete takeover of the western Mediterranean as well, but also led to a rise in conflict between Rome, and the nearbye power in Carthage. Following this large expansion a Roman General named Hadrian would rise from the Senate and eventually underwent a takeover of the Senate becoming the first Emperor, and under his rule he expanded the Roman Empire massively across Europe, and further expanded into Asia, and Africanas.
Main Article : Timeline of the Roman Empire
The city of Rome grew from settlements around a ford on the river Tiber, a crossroads of traffic and trade sometime around the year -3000. According to legend, the village of Rome was probably founded by members of the Latin tribe of Italy, on the top of the Palatine Hill. The Etruscans, who had previously settled to the north in Etruria, seem to have established political control in the region before the coming of the Italians, and formed the aristocratic and monarchical elite. The Etruscans lost power in the area over centuries due to the immigration of more and more Latin and Sabine tribes, but even during this rise the Etruscans under the Kingdom of Etrus would still hold the region as a client state. As a client state of the Kingdom of Etrus these original Latin and Sabine tribes reinvented their government by creating a republic, with much greater restraints on the ability of rulers to exercise power, of which the Kingdom of Etrus would allow and then infiltrate over the generations following its rise.
Rise of Romulas and Remas
Over the generations the once independant of sorts Republic of Rome had been completely co-opted by the Kingdom of Etrus and was now known as the Latin League led by several Etruscan noble families of whom dominated the league as monarchies, and it would be in this position that in the year -1550 the twin brothers Romulas, and Remas Silvia would be born to Rhea Silvia, daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa which was one of the Kingdoms in the Latin League making them members of a royal bloodline of House Silvia. Their father would be the Third Generation Titan Mars of whom had taken a keen interest in the fate of the Italian Peninsula but following the defeat of his original bloodline in House Raeti he moved to the Italians as his next attempt at building the Italians.
Rebuilding the Republic
The Roman Empire was first founded by the twin brothers Romulas and Remus of whom battled for supremacy against the Kingdom of Etrus and the Etruscans who were dominent on Italy, and during their rise they would further expand Rome and the Senate of Rome leading to the Republic of Rome.
First Roman Civil War
Despite originally ruling as Kings the twins Romulas, and Remas would begin to have diverging beliefs on the movement of the Romans going forward with Romulas believing in the Republic and its values while Remas wanted the Senate as more of a tool for their expanding monarchy. These diverging ideas eventually led to a civil war between the two brothers and after a brief conflict the victorious Romulas would turn it from a monarchy into a republic ruled over by a Senate of which he was just a member of.
The Roman Republic would expand outward and over several years had taken control of much of central Italy, and had spread into Southern Italy as well. Following the defeat of a large alliance of Kingdoms of Northern, and Southern Italy the Roman Republic would have complete control of the Italian Penisula stopping in the north at the Lucerne Mountains and Umbar. A war against Sicily would expand the Roman Republic into Siciliy and most of the islands south of Italy as well as the large island west of Italy of Sardinia.
Following the wars of Italy by Romulas the Italian Peninsula was dominated by the Roman Republic becoming the major power force in southern Europe but also having a strong relationship with Numeron allowing them to expand peacefully in regions not dominated by the Numenorians.
Preaching to Western Europe
Mathew the Apostle would following the death of Jesus leave Nehekhara for a time travelling to Constantinople where he would found the Roman Catholic Church converting the population there to its belief before travelling to Italy where he was able to convert the population there as well thereby converting the Roman Empire to Christianity.
Conversion of the Bretonians
Following his conversion of the Romans he would travel with a large grouping of these Romans to the expanding rapidly Kingdom of Bretonia and would be able to convert the monarchy of Bretonia to the worship of the Christian Church of which the Romans would form the Roman Catholic Church, while the Bretonians would form the Fraticelli Church both of which swiftly became the state religion of both nations.
Conversion of the Dwarves
Departing the Kingdom of Bretonia he would attempt to make his way eastward into the region of Alcase, and Lorraine but was forced to move north and then west by large numbers of Trollocs who blocked his path eventually making him enter the Dwarven Holds of Matron where he remained for almost fifteen years preaching to the Dwarves eventually converting there King of whom renamed their lands the Imperial Empire of Matron and joined the Roman Catholic Church.
Hadrian the Great
With the entire Roman system seemingly unable to move forward due to politics it would be a man from within this problem that would come to rise within the ranks and grow himself into a position that he could change things. Hadrian was born into the elite ranks but he had been trained in an academy outside of Rome unlike most of his class of people thus changing his purspective on the outside world in ways that his family could not have seen. His time in the east at a college in Greece had led him to seeing the world so much differently, and also it led to him believing that they needed the help of Rome which would come to be one of the defining reasons for his expansionary position later in life. When he returned from this time he was a different boy then they remembered but he was just as charismatic as before and for this reason they ignored his more ideolistic viewpoints and were happy when he entered the Senate at the low age of twenty two years old.
Controlling the Senate
Hadrian Expands into Croatia
Main Article : Dutchy of Estalia
The Roman Empire was expanding throughout Europe following the rise of Hadrian and one of his main projects was to expand into Croatia in the hopes that one day they could bottleneck the control that Umbar, and Dol Amroth had over the trade routes of the Adriatic Sea. In this way Hadrian sent a great expedition to both Greece, and the region of Croatia and these expeditions were as much civilian as military. When the mission arrived in Estalia it went about founding two major ports in the form of Bilbali, and Varonne from where they would begins sending large quantities of trade, and resources into Estalia. As they expanded from these two ports they found resistence in the north in the form of the Kingdom of Serbia. The Kingdom of Serbia was a truly massive Kingdom at the time rivalring the eventual size of Estalia, but it had a serious weakeness in the fact that it had just come out of a series of Civil Wars that had drained its military of manpower, and many of its cities were in near ruins when the Roman holdings begin to reach the borders of Serbia.
War with Serbia
When the Romans attempted to bribe the local Serbians into joining they discovered their local supporters were hanged in towns, and their solders were attacked as they attempted to move throughout the region. This caused the Romans to slow their expansion into the Serbian Kingdom and to take it as a logitimit threat to their control of the region. In order to allow for them to more easily enter the Kingdom of Serbia as conquerers they would instigitate two scenarios which would help to bring down the Serbian Kingdom. To the north of the romans and the east of the Serbians was a truly burgeoning population of Visigoths that were living on the outside of what is now Estalia, and these Visigoths wanted more and more authority of which the nationalist Serbians would not give them. Because of this the Visigoths would be funded by the Romans and a small puppet Kingdom would form that begin to battle against the Serbians on their northeast front causing a divergance of forces, and more importantly riots thorughout many eastern towns. The other element was that the Romans bought a mercenary force and equipped them in the colors of Dol Amroth and then snuck them inside the northwestern section of Serbia and from here they would burn villages down, and cause all sorts of problems that the Serbians could not ignore. These fake attacks would cause a brief war between the two that culminated in a battle that was lost by the Serbians and led to the death of the Serbians King, and their heir leaving them virtually leaderless for a time.
The Fall of SerbiaThe true fall of Serbia can be determined by the massive losses they suffered fighting the elite forces of Dol Amroth. When during the final Battle of that conflict happened and they lost both their King, and the heir to the throne they became leaderless and the Romans took this oppurtunity to end the conflict as they moved in and sacked the entire region of Pazin, and Zadar where the main population outside of Karlova was located. At the same time this was happening the Visigoths were overruning the eastern side basically unoposed due to the route of the only real army of the Serbians in the east during the Battle of Magritta. All of this was too much for the Serbians and what little remained of their leadership begin to sue for peace, and the Romans would quickly accept this offer and thus annexx what little remained of the Serbian Kingdom. During this time they made deals with the realm of Dol Amroth to fix their borders through the offering of tribute payments to Dol Amroth to finance their losses. With this completion also meant the end of the Visigoths of whome couldn't dare beat the Romans but were also forever hateful towards the betrayal they were delivered due to the fact that they had been promised control of their lands if they assisted Rome.
Death of Hadrian
At the age of sixty nine the greatest Emperor in the history of the Roman Empire thus far would die of Typhus that had afflicted in to his bed for nearly five years. His death would bring an end to his reign which had seen the expansion of Rome externally, and the fortifying of the Roman Empire at home. During the reign of Hadrian he would be most remembered for his defeat of the mighty Moors during his later years which allowed for Rome to basically control the entire Mediteranean Sea alongwith North Africanas. His conquering of Estalia, Greece, and the founding of Constantinople gave rise to what would eventually become the eastern Roman Empire, and even later the Byzantine Empire. But more then this it was his construction of cities and fortresses such as Ravenna, Valencia, Genoa, and many others that he would cause the greatest affect. His reordering of the Roman Legions would go unchanged until the ravaging of the Fall of Hispania thus proving how much of an effect he had.
As Hadrian did not leave word for who should sucede him the task was given to the Senate and when they couldn't come to a decision the power was taken by Domitium of whome was in control of the First Legion which was seasoned in Rome and thus easily gained control of the Senate. Under Domitium the expansion in the east would take place as well as the immigration of Italians throughout the Empire and Europe caused by his Italian Nationalism. These things would have a short term major boom for the Roman Empire but in the long term it would lead to the sucession of many of these regions most importantly being the Byzantine Empire's growth.
Second Roman Civil War
Main Article : Second Roman Civil War
| The Great Roman Civil War|
There are consequences when you take advantage of your own persieved greatness. You should have known that all this would eventually lead to violence, and the end of the greatness of Rome.Perhaps it was your arrogance that blinded you. Maybe it was your menipulative mother. Perhaps you actually believed that you were fixing something that was broken. Whatever the reason was understand that you have done nothing but cement your legacy as the Emperor who weakened the Roman Empire more then any before him.
Rebellion of the East
Rebellion in the West
Rise of Nerva Gordian
Rise of Romulaslas
Rise of Aurelius Domitius
Fall of Hispania
Main Article : Fall of Hispania
| Fall of Hispania|
We just sat there and let them destroy half the continent. It all could have been stopped so easily.
The Orcs inability to swim, or craft any sort of boat meant that the Romans had left this region dangerously undermanned believing that this water barrier would provide all the protection they needed. In fact there were more solders garrisoning the small Italian town of briensia, of which shared no border with any hostile nation, then there were in the castle of Gibraltar. As well as this undermanned garrison the original site of the castle was far enough back from the beach and the crossing that the soldiers couldn't see the crossing, and for this they relied on a small village with a large lighthouse along the coast. For years the Orcs of Emblam prepared for this crossing by massing a huge amount of troops in the lands of the former Roman provinces of Mauritania while the Kingdom of Senegal one of the human client states of Emblam begin preparations for the moving of the Orc armies across the Straits of Gibraltar. This bridge would be used by the Orcs to open up a new front in Europe, as they were being stalled in Africanas by the Nubian Empire, and the Kingdom of Lahmia.
The Order of the Raven would be contacted during this time by Tanitha Ogriddit the Fourth Mistress of the Order of Ekrodomis and during this visit it was Gregor Davenholdt the High Mentor of the Ravens that soundly rejected helping them with such a morally bankrupt mission and threatened violence against Tanitha and her party if they did not leave. Following the departure of Tanitha it was Sayden Ah-Salemi that would follow her with several of his loyalists and realizing this was his moment to destroy the moral ravens he would agree to work with Tanitha and bring whatever support he was able to once he had gained control of the ravens. This action and agreement would lead to the Coup of Ravenholdt which once it was complete would lead to Sayden as the new High Minister and with this new power he would meet with the Empire of Emblam at the city of Banjul inside the Republic of Gambia where meeting with the Gambians and Senegese they would arrange to assist in controlling southern Hispania. Returning to Ravenholdt following this agreement it was Sayden that would send two of his loyalists in the form of the Raven Masters Vincent Vandame, and Hartwin Eberl to southern Hispania where they were to stop the castle of Gibraltar from communicating what was happening across the Straights of Gibraltar.
Fall of Gibraltar
Main Article : Massacre at Gibraltar
Poncet Mariette would lead his Unkindness to the small castle of Gibraltar where arriving with his forces he links up with Vincent Vandame, and Hartwin Eberl and their forces all of whom are to combine their strength. Vincent and Hartwin had managed to keep any word from Gibraltar from leaving the area as well as sabotaged the boat at the port which was meant to be the first warning against movement to the south, and thus the Roman Empire remained unaware of the growing construction of the Bridge of Gibraltar. Entering the castle Ezio accompanies Poncet, Hartwin, and Vincent as they are introduced to a Roman Lieutenant named Postumius Iavolenus of whom they discuss the current regional situation with and Postumius reveals he has only gained a few dozen of the garrison to his side while the remainder remain loyal to Caelus Trebonius the Legate Tribune of the castle. With this in mind Poncet while clearly confused as to what there end goal is goes along with the plan that Vincent and Hartwin form in order to kill the garrison and then gain control of the port.
The attack would be stalled by Vincent, and Hartwin who refused to tell Poncet why but instead commanded he and his Unkindess travel north and destroy the village of San Toque. Poncet would once again wilt under the pressure and accepted this command taking Ezio with him as they traveled to San Toque on this mission of destruction.
Following returning from the destruction of San Toque it was Poncet who met with the newly arrived Burama Jarju of whom was a member of the Morag Tong and was there to assist in the capture of Gibraltar. Together with the few traitors in the castle the forces of the Raven and the Morag Tong would attack the castle during the night and without any warning the defenders were mainly dead before any fight could be had, and the legate tribune would be assassinated by Poncet who alongside Ezio spoke briefly with the tribune before the kill discovering more details on what was actually happening.
Ezio and Benjamin Bradfoot discussing the situation and Ezio feels the first pangs of doubt over his loyalties as Benjamin reveals he cannot accept what has happened and prepares to leave for Malta to warn the Order of the Purple Cloth about the happenings in southern Hispania. Ezio at first is prepared to kill Benjamin but their frienship and his confusion over the evil they had just taken part in leads Ezio to let Benjamin leave, and with this Ezio returns to the camp where he plans to tell them Benjamin was struck down and fell in the water.
Capture of Malaga
Main Article : Capture of Malaga
The town of Malaga was a major town located in the middle of the Malaga mountain chain, and with the Orcs massing in Gibraltar it was Malaga that was chosen as the place where they would situate their main organizational center. Wanting to take control of Malaga with as much of the infrastructure intact as possible the plan would be for a division of the Kingdom of Senegal, a division from Gambia, and a division from Songhei, to join the Order of the Raven and Morag Tong in capturing the town with as little violence as possible. Entering Malaga its Ezio who runs into a young man and seeing the boy snaps something inside him and leads Ezio to knock the young man out and leave him hidden in a celler telling no one of this outside of Erard Montaigu before they return to their mission of killing the seventh centurion. Entering the command headquarters for the seventh cohort of the 13th legion they would kill several legionarries who blocked their path to the main room, and upon reaching it found Caelius Paetinus inside with three legionarries but only one had his armor and weapon with him.
Fall of Almeria
Main Article : Fall of Almeria
The Invasion of Hispania would begin with an event known as the Fall of Almeria where they forces of Emblam alongside their allies having already taken much of south-eastern Hispania would surround the port of Almeria where the bulk of the Roman Fleet in Hispania had made its port. By this time there were rumblings around the Roman Empire that things were happening in Hispania but for the part of Appius Procyon the Legate Prefict in charge of the scouting for the 13th Legion he had no signs of attack and his scouts were not relaying anything of importance to him due to the work of the Morag Tong targeting them. At the onset of the Fall of Hispania Appius was in a small fortress just north of Almeria where he was dealing with negotiations with a small tribe of Spaniards and it was in this position that he was forced to fight for his life when Orcs attacked his fort during the larger Fall of Almeria. Having survived and rallied his forces during the events of the Fall of Almeria it was Appius who joined the Legate of the 13th linking up with the larger surviving forces of the 13th as they begin retreating northward towards Alicante.
Battle of Central Hispania
The Romans would send in six Legions as reinforcements in an attempt to stall the Orcs advance while they built up the defences of Valencia, Tourone, and Castile. The Legions arrived in Valencia and begin moving towards their respective spots but in an unfortuante turn of events the 13th Legion under Lucius Vorenus, and the 4th Legion under Titus Pulo would be stuck in Ravenna at port and didn't arrive until it was too late for them to reach Castile, and thus two Legions meant to defend Valencia moved towards Castile. These four Legions fighting at Castile attempted delaying tactics for nearly a month, but each battle left them more and more drained and they were less and less effective. The 2nd Legion managed to escape west towards Portugal, and it sucked off a portion of the Orcs that followed them as they retreated at full speed towards Tourone. The 9th Legion would be massacred by the Orcs outside of the city as they attempted to make their way inside, while the 10th Legion would escape that Battle and make it inside the city. The final legion in the 5th Legion would flee eastward effectively and would meet up with the newly arrived 13th, and 4th Legions in Valencia.
Battle for Tourone
Main Article : Battle for Tourone
Alexander Rousset would lead the forces of the Dutchy of Aquitaine into the area of Tourone where they planned on assisting the pushing out of the Orc forces from Hispania, but upon arriving in Tourone they discovered that the 5th Legion was no longer attempting to fight an offensive conflict and instead was in a fighting retreat back to Tourone in preparation for holding the area to allow people to escape, and with this in mind Alexander would send his son and the fleet south while he joined the effort to hold Tourone.
The Tourone Gap
Main Article : Battle of Tourone Gap
As a large force of refugees flowed into the Tourone area the usually Bretonian nationalist Alexander Rousset made the decision to hold the gap open at the risk of his own forces and this led to the Battle of the Tourone Gap where Alexander kept the gap open then led an ordered retreat out of the gap back to Tourone but was mortally wounded during the battle dying shortly before they arrived at Tourone.
Battle for Lisbon
Main Article : Great Battle for Lisbon
Lisbon Counter assault
It would be Alain Rousset that would following the command of his father take the Aquitaine Fleet and move southward to link up with the Roman Fleet at Lisbon for what he planned to be an eventual assault on the Straights of Gibraltar. Arriving at Lisbon Alain discovered that the Roman Fleet at Lisbon had been defeated by a naval force from the Emblam allied nation of the Kingdom of Songhei and learning the Roman Fleet had fled westward trying to escape it was Alain who led the Aquitaine Fleet westward in support and would come upon the Roman Fleet and the Songhei engaged in a fleet battle and with his arrival they shattered the Songhei Fleet and captured or killed the entire Songhei Fleet.
Fall of Castile
With the Fall of the resistence the Orcs made a straight line for Castile, and the massive millions strong Orcs Army surrounded the city and put it under siege. For days they hammered at the city but the stalwart defenders in the 10th Legion would succesfully hold them off under the mistaken belief that the other three legions were on their way to releave them. While the other three wanted to assist the 5th Legion was damaged and unable to move, and the 13th and 4th were facing massive opposition in the form of the Orcs advancing on Valencia. With no resistence coming Lucius Vorenus sent a raven to Bretonia where he said in the letter that Castile was going to fall if the Bretonians did not advance and assist them. Upon reading the letter the Bretonian King is said to have wept tears at the precarious situation that Europe had found itself in, and with all the news shifting in to his throne room he was sure that the letter was authentic. With all of this in mind the Bretonians were scared so much that they flooded into Hispania and made full speed towards Castile. The Bretonians were slowed down by the constant battles and because of this they arrived days to late, and watched as Castile fell and with it the hope of a human Hispania.
Battle of Valencia
With Castile gone the Orcs rampaged towards Valencia, and Andorra where they would come to fight massive battles which for the first time went against them as they discovered the Bretonians were able fighters with competent commanders unlike the Romans. The three sides fought constant battles and with Lucius Vorenus now having complete control the Romans were fighting more effectively and thus Valencia was a no go for the Orcs.
With the deaths of so many of the wisest leaders during the Civil War and the coming of the Orcs the Romans had a severe lack of qualified leadership. This had become clear during the failings of the War in Hispania , and War in France .
Constant expansion in its history had meant that the weaknesses of the internal economic model of the Empire was often hidden, but without expansion the empire is in dire straights. The current Emperor Nero is a corupt and failure of a Emperor that many whisper may be a mad man, who dresses as a women.
Size of the Empire
Peak under Gaius Hadrian
The Empire was at its peak during the Reign of the great Hadrian Emperor. Under Hadrian the Empire expanded greatly throughout Croatia, and Africanas, and would become nearly as large if not as powerful as the ancient Numeron Empire, and was the match for both The Empire, and Nehekhara.
Post Orc Invasion
The Roman Civil War cost the Empire a great deal of its land. Followng this they lost further land to the coming of the Orcs. At current the Romans are in control over Western Mediterianian as well as Italy and parts of Hispania and France.
The Roman Empire once under the reign of the Emperor Gaius Hadrian stretched over much of Europe and Africanas, and during its peake it had a population not matched by anyone but the ancient Numenorian Empire, The Empire, and the Empire of Nehekhara.
Population Centers of the Roman Empire
The Roman Empire is dotted by towns of which their are many vast, and powerful towns that all add together to create the overall Roman Empire. Cities are ruled by Senators, and preficts of whom are chosen based usually on hereditary leadership, and in more important cases based on being appointed by high leaderships.
|Name||Population||Province||Dominent Noble Families|
Life in the Roman Empire revolved around the city of Rome, and its famed seven hills. The city also had several theatres, gymnasia, and many taverns, baths and brothels. Throughout the territory under Rome's control, residential architecture ranged from very modest houses to country villas, and in the capital city of Rome, to the residences on the elegant Palatine Hill, from which the word "palace" is derived. The vast majority of the population lived in the city centre, packed into apartment blocks.
Most Roman towns and cities had a forum and temples, as did the city of Rome itself. Aqueducts were built to bring water to urban centres and served as an avenue to import wine and oil from abroad. Landlords generally resided in cities and their estates were left in the care of farm managers. To stimulate a higher labour productivity, many landlords freed a large numbers of slaves. By the time of Augustus, cultured Greek household slaves taught the Roman young (sometimes even the girls). Greek sculptures adorned Hellenistic landscape gardening on the Palatine or in the villas.
Many aspects of Roman culture were taken from the Etruscans and the Greeks. In architecture and sculpture, the difference between Greek models and Roman paintings are apparent. The chief Roman contributions to architecture were the arch and the dome.
The centre of the early social structure was the family, which was not only marked by blood relations but also by the legally constructed relation of patria potestas. The Pater familias was the absolute head of the family; he was the master over his wife, his children, the wives of his sons, the nephews, the slaves and the freedmen, disposing of them and of their goods at will, even putting them to death. Originally, only patrician aristocracy enjoyed the privilege of forming familial clans, or gens, as legal entities; later, in the wake of political struggles and warfare, clients were also enlisted. Thus, such plebian gentes were the first formed, imitating their patrician counterparts.
Slavery and slaves were part of the social order; there were slave markets where they could be bought and sold. Many slaves were freed by the masters for services rendered; some slaves could save money to buy their freedom. Generally mutilation and murder of slaves was prohibited by legislation. It is estimated that over 25% of the Roman population was enslaved. Professor Gerhard Rempel from the Western New England College claims that in the city of Rome alone, during the Empire, there were about 400,000 slaves.
The city of Rome had a place called the Campus Martius ("Field of Mars"), which was a sort of drill ground for Roman soldiers. Later, the Campus became Rome's track and field playground. In the campus, the youth assembled to play and exercise, which included jumping, wrestling, boxing and racing. Riding, throwing, and swimming were also preferred physical activities.
In the countryside, pastimes also included fishing and hunting. Board games played in Rome included Dice (Tesserae or Tali), Roman Chess (Latrunculi), Roman Checkers (Calculi), Tic-tac-toe (Terni Lapilli), and Ludus duodecim scriptorum and Tabula, predecessors of backgammon. There were several other activities to keep people engaged like chariot races, musical and theatrical performances,
The cloth and the dress distinguished one class of people from the other class. The tunic worn by plebeians (common people) like shepherds and slaves was made from coarse and dark material, whereas the tunic worn by patricians was of linen or white wool. A magistrate would wear the tunica augusticlavi; senators wore a tunic with broad stripes, called tunica laticlavi. Military tunics were shorter than the ones worn by civilians. Boys, until the festival of Liberalia, wore the toga praetexta, which was a toga with a crimson or purple border. The toga virilis, (or toga pura) was worn by men over the age of 16 to signify their citizenship in Rome.
The toga picta was worn by triumphant generals and had embroidery of their skill on the battlefield. The toga pulla was worn when in mourning. Even footwear indicated a person's social status: patricians wore red and orange sandals, senators had brown footwear, consuls had white shoes, and soldiers wore heavy boots. Men typically wore a toga, and women a stola. The woman's stola looked different from a toga, and was usually brightly coloured. The Romans also invented socks for those soldiers required to fight on the northern frontiers, sometimes worn in sandals.
The language of Rome before its expansion was Latin, and this became the empire's official language. By the time of the imperial period Latin had developed two registers: the "high" written Classical Latin and the "low" spoken Vulgar Latin. While Classical Latin remained relatively stable, even through the destructive moments of the Empire`s fall, Vulgar Latin as with any spoken language was fluid and evolving.
The three major elements of the Imperial Roman state were the central government, the military, and provincial government. The military established control of a territory through war, but after a city or people was brought under treaty, the military mission turned to policing: protecting Roman citizens, the agricultural fields that fed them, and religious sites. Without modern instruments of either mass communication or mass destruction, the Romans lacked sufficient manpower or resources to impose their rule through force alone. Cooperation with local power elites was necessary to maintain order, collect information, and extract revenue. The Romans often exploited internal political divisions by supporting one faction over another: in the view of Plutarch, "it was discord between factions within cities that led to the loss of self-governance".
Communities with demonstrated loyalty to Rome retained their own laws, could collect their own taxes locally, and in exceptional cases were exempt from Roman taxation. Legal privileges and relative independence were an incentive to remain in good standing with Rome. Roman government was thus limited, but efficient in its use of the resources available to it.
The powers of an emperor (his imperium) have existed, in theory at least, by virtue of his "tribunician powers" (potestas tribunicia) and his "proconsular powers" (imperium proconsulare). In theory, the tribunician powers (which were similar to those of the Plebeian Tribunes under the old republic) made the Emperor's person and office sacrosanct, and gave the Emperor authority over Rome's civil government, including the power to preside over and to control the Senate.
The proconsular powers (similar to those of military governors, or Proconsuls, under the old Republic) gave him authority over the Roman army. He was also given powers that, under the Republic, had been reserved for the Senate and the assemblies, including the right to declare war, to ratify treaties, and to negotiate with foreign leaders.
The emperor also has the authority to carry out a range of duties that had been performed by the censors, including the power to control Senate membership. In addition, the emperor controls the religious institutions, since, as emperor, he is always Pontifex Maximus and a member of each of the four major priesthoods. All of these powers combine to turn the role of Emperor into a truly powerful position.
List of Roman Emperor's
|Romulas Silvia II.||House Silvia||-1485 to -1474 (11 Years)||Killed during Roman Uprising of 1474|
|Lucian Silvia I.||House Silvia||-1474 to -1473 (1 Year)||Abdicated Position (Restoring Republic)|
|Hadrian Trajan||House Trajan||-415 to -375 (40 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Romulas Trajan||House Trajan||-375 to -342 (33 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Hadrian Trajan III.||House Trajan||-342 to -298 (44 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Gordian Trajan||House Trajan||-298 to -246 (52 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Caligula Trajan II.||House Trajan||-246 to -195 (51 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Hadrian Trajan IV.||House Trajan||-195 to -182 (12 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Caligula Trajan III.||House Trajan||-182 to -150 (32 Years)||Killed at Battle of Magritta|
|Hadrian Trajan VIII.||House Trajan||-150 to -96 (54 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Nero Trajan II.||House Trajan||-96 to -52 (44 Years)||Commited Suicide|
|Galba Flavian II.||House Flavian||-52 to -6 (46 Years)||Killed during the Battle of Umbar|
|Nerva Flavian IV.||House Flavian||-6 to 37 (43 Years)||Killed during the Battle of Carthage|
|Galba Flavian III.||House Flavian||37 to 92 (55 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Quintus Ennius III.||House Ennius||1522 to 1555 (33 Years)||Killed during the Roman-Mycenean War|
|Marcus Ennius II.||House Ennius||1555 to 1562 (7 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Flavius Constantine||House Constantine||1872 to 1899 (27 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Gaius Decius||House Decius||1899 to 1905 (6 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Nerva Gordian||House Gordian||1905 to 1906 (1 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Romulas Trajan VI.||House Trajan||1906 to 1908 (2 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Romulas Hadrian II.||House Trajan||1908 to 1908 (0 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Aurelius Domitius||House Domitius||1908 to 1930 (22 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Tiberius Trajan IIV.||House Trajan||3201 to 3235 (34 Years)||Died of Sickness|
|Aurelian Trajan III.||House Trajan||3235 to 3262 (22 Years)||Killed during the Lahmian Revolution|
|Quintis Trajan II.||House Trajan||3262 to 3262 (0 Years)||Killed during the Lahmian Revolution|
|Quintin Trajan III.||House Trajan||3262 to 3289 (27 Years)||Killed during the Second Lahmian Revolution|
|Flavius Trajan V.||House Trajan||3289 to 3331 (27 Years)||Died of sickness|
|Gauis Hadrian||House Hadrian||45 Years||Died of Sickness|
|Otho Flavian||House Flavian||22 Years||Killed during the Fall of Carthage|
|Galba Domitius||House Domitius||1 Year||Killed during the Fall of Hispania|
|Servius Domitius III.||House Domitius||2 Years||Killed during the Battle of Lyons|
|Aurelian Domitius VII.||House Domitius||8 Years||Poisoned by Nero Domitius|
|Nero Domitius||House Domitius||9 Years||Killed during the Sacking of Rome|
Senate of Rome
In theory, the Emperor and the Senate are two equal branches of government, but the actual authority of the Senate is negligible and it is largely a vehicle through which the Emperor disguises his autocratic powers under a cloak of republicanism. Although the Senate still commands much prestige and respect, it is largely a glorified rubber stamp institution. Stripped of most of its powers, the Senate is largely at the Emperor's mercy.
Many emperors since Hadrian have showed a certain degree of respect towards this ancient institution, while others have been notorious for ridiculing it. During Senate meetings, the Emperor sits between the two consuls, and usually acts as the presiding officer. Higher ranking senators spoke before lower ranking senators, although the Emperor could speak at any time.
An annexed territory became a province in a three-step process: making a register of cities, taking a census of the population, and surveying the land. Further government recordkeeping included births and deaths, real estate transactions, taxes, and juridical proceedings. Among these officials were the "Roman governors", as they are called in English: either magistrates elected at Rome who in the name of the Roman people governed senatorial provinces; or governors, usually of equestrian rank, who held their imperium on behalf of the emperor in provinces excluded from senatorial control, most notably Roman Egypt. A governor had to make himself accessible to the people he governed, but he could delegate various duties. His staff, however, was minimal: his official attendants (apparitores), including lictors, heralds, messengers, scribes, and bodyguards; legates, both civil and military, usually of equestrian rank; and friends, ranging in age and experience, who accompanied him unofficially.
Other officials were appointed as supervisors of government finances. Separating fiscal responsibility from justice and administration was a reform of the Imperial era. Under the Republic, provincial governors and tax farmers could exploit local populations for personal gain more freely. Equestrian procurators, whose authority was originally "extra-judicial and extra-constitutional," managed both state-owned property and the vast personal property of the emperor (res privata). Because Roman government officials were few in number, a provincial who needed help with a legal dispute or criminal case might seek out any Roman perceived to have some official capacity, such as a procurator or a military officer, including centurions down to the lowly stationarii or military police.
Roman Provinces were delegated in three levels with a first level controlling level two's, and level threes, while a level two would more directly control the level two's and the level threes would control their specific governing area, and thus in this way a level one would corespond in a similar way to a feudal kingdom, while a level two being a dutchy, and a level three being a county.
The standard of a legion, the so-called aquila (eagle) was the very symbol of the unit's honour. The aquilifer who was the man who carried the standard was in rank almost as high as a centurion. It was this elevated and honourable position which also made him the soldiers' treasurer in charge of the pay chest. A legion on the march relied completely on its own resources for weeks. To make camp each night every man carried tools for digging as well as two stakes for a palisade. Apart from this and his weapons and armour, the legionary would also carry a cooking pot, some rations, clothes and any personal possessions. Weighed down by such burdens it is little wonder that the soldiers were nicknamed 'Marius' Mules'.
The necessity for a legion to undertake quite specialised tasks such as bridge building or engineering siege machines, required there to be specialists among their numbers. These men were known as the immunes, 'excused from regular duties'. Among them would be medical staff, surveyors, carpenters, veterinaries, hunters, armourers - even soothsayers and priests. When the legion was on the march, the chief duty of the suveyors would be to go ahead of the army, perhaps with a cavalry detachment, and to seek out the best place for the night's camp. In the forts along the empire's frontiers other non-combatant men could be found. For an entire bureaucracy was necessary to keep the army running. So scribes and supervisors, in charge of army pay, supplies and customs. Also there would be military police present.
Command Structure - Reign of Nero Domitium
|Title||Role||Base of Operations||Current Holder(s)||Historical Holders|
|Legatus Legionis||Strategic Commander of all Roman Legions||Rome||Julius Julii|
|Magister Militum||Financial Command of the Roman Legions||Rome||Horatius Pulvillus|
|Legate Dux||General of Field Armies||Rome||Not Applicable|
List of Roman Legions - Reign of Nero Domitius
|Legio I. Roma||Rome||Loyal|
|Legio II. Victrix||Milan||Romulas Julii||Loyal|
|Legio III. Roma||Rome||Loyal|
|Legio IV. Claudia||Milan||Antonious Trajan||Loyal|
|Legio V. Torbinus||Milan||Loyal|
|Legio VI. Flavia||
Historically - Hispania
Reformed - Ravenna
Second Reform - Rome
|Legio VII. Italica||
Historically - Tuscany
Reformed - Rome
|Legio VIII. Minervia||
Historical - Marseilles
Reformed - Turin
|Legio IX. Minervia||
Historical - Marseilles
Reformed - Turin
|Legio X. Vincia||
Historical - Tuscany
Reformed - Chatacium
|Legio XI. Gemina||Chatacium||Marcus Crassus||Loyal|
|Legio XII. Roma||Rome||Hordeonius Flaccus||Loyal|
|Legio XIII. Italica||Malta||Appius Procyon||Loyal|
|Legio XIV. Sardinia||Gaeta||Loyal|
|Legio XV. Sardinia||Sardinia||Daus Pigliaru III.||Loyal|
|Legio XVII. Sicilia||Reggio||Secundus Auspex||Loyal|
|Legio XVIII. Sicilia||Palerno||Angelo Pullo||Flavius Pullo||Loyal|
|Legio XIX. Sicilia||Palermo||Loyal|
Former Roman Legions
|Legio V. Roma||Carthage||Destroyed in Fall of Carthage|
|Legio VIII. Carthage||Carthage||Destroyed in Fall of Carthage|
|Legion VI. Hispania||Ravenna||Rebelled|
|Legio VIII. Parthica||Marseilles||Rebelled|
|Legio IX. Parthica||Marseilles||Rebelled|
|Legio X. Victrix||Tuscany||Rebelled|
|Legio XX. Gemina||Venice||Rebelled|
|Legio V. Italica||Tuscany||Rebelled|
|Legio XXI. Carthage||Malta||
Merged with Legio X. Vincia
|Legio VI. Augustus||Amalfi||Merged with Legio IX. Minervia, and Legio VIII. Minervia|
|Legio XVI. Amalfi||Amalfi||Merged with Legio VI. Flavia|
|Legio XVII. Italica||Rome||Destroyed during Battle of Lyons|
|Legio XVIII. Italica||Rome||Destroyed during Battle of Lyons|
The Roman Navy was always considered an inferior arm and was strictly under army control. But already during the First Punic War, Rome proved itself capable of launching a fleet capable of checking an established naval power such as Carthage. Romans were no sailors though. They had no knowledge of ship building. Their ships were in fact built copying the example of captured Carthaginian vessels, combined with the expertise supplied by the Greek cities of southern Italy. Rather unexpected success in battle was obtained by a logical Roman idea that a warship was little more than a floating platform on which the soldiers could be brought into close contact with the enemy.
For this purpose they invented a huge boarding plank with a large spike on the end, which could be raised and lowerd like a drawbridge. Before battle it would be raised and then dropped onto an enemy's deck. The spike would embed itself into the oppnent's deck planking and the legionaries could board the enemy vessel across it. This elaborate contraption was called 'the raven' (corvus) This invention gave Rome five victories at sea. However, it is believed that it's weight, carried above the water line, also made the ships unstable, and could in rough seas cause them to capsize.
The praetorians (cohors praetoria) were the imperial guard to protect Rome and the emperor. They were a crack unit whose members wore a special uniform and received double pay, in addition to the bribes which they came to be offered in the guise of bonuses for their allegiance. (Traditional teaching is that the praetorians were crack soldiers, chosen for their fighting ability. There are however those who claim that the Praetorian guard, rather than being a body of select men, were merely an army drawn from Italy, rather than from the provinces.)
When the emperor went on campaign, the imperial guard went with him. The institution of the cohors praetoria had originally been that of a group of men acting as bodyguards to a general, but Augustus - most likely drawing on the experience of Julius Caesar's murder - created a large personal army. Initially, the Praetorian guard consisted of nine cohorts of 500 men each. This was increased by emperor Caligula to twelve cohorts. Vitellius again increased their number to sixteen cohorts. Vespasian therafter reduced their number again to nine cohorts and Domitian increased them to ten cohorts of 500 men. A cohort was commmanded by a tribune, together with two equestrians. The guard itself was commanded by the praetorian prefects, who were equestrians rather than of senatorial rank. A sign of the exclusion of the mighty senate from certain key positions by the emperor.
Soldiers of the praetorian guard served only for sixteen years, a term much shorter that the service of an ordinary legionary. But after their sixteen year term they became so-called evocati, which ment that they were held back from discharge. Their service in the praetorians meant they either went on to perform specialist military duties or it simply qualified them either for service as centurions. These centurionates would usually be taken up in praetorian guard itself or in the city cohorts and the vigiles. Though some also took commands as centurions in the regular legion.